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A descent group is a social group whose members talk about common ancestry.
A unilineal society is one in which the descent of an individual is reckoned either from the mother's or the father's line of descent.
The major patterns of kinship systems that are known which Lewis Henry Morgan identified through kinship terminology in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family are: The six types (Crow, Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Omaha, Sudanese) that are not fully classificatory (Dravidian, Australian) are those identified by Murdock (1949) prior to Lounsbury's (1964) rediscovery of the linguistic principles of classificatory kin terms.
In many societies where kinship connections are important, there are rules, though they may be expressed or be taken for granted.
Family relations can be represented concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or abstractly by degrees of relationship (kinship distance). a father in relation to a child) or reflect an absolute (e.g.Human kinship relations through marriage are commonly called "affinity" in contrast to the relationships that arise in one's group of origin, which may be called one's descent group.In some cultures, kinship relationships may be considered to extend out to people an individual has economic or political relationships with, or other forms of social connections.Different societies classify kinship relations differently and therefore use different systems of kinship terminology – for example some languages distinguish between affinal and consanguine uncles, whereas others have only one word to refer to both a father and his brothers.Kinship terminologies include the terms of address used in different languages or communities for different relatives and the terms of reference used to identify the relationship of these relatives to ego or to each other.